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Understanding Account Reconciliation

July 10, 2019 |

Account reconciliation is a critical component of the period-end close and reporting cycle—a frequent bottleneck, but also a key indicator of a company’s financial integrity. When done right, an organization and its stakeholders can rely on their reported numbers and management’s ability to manage them. Otherwise, account reconciliation can be a source of time-consuming manual effort for finance teams, and a serious hit to confidence for stakeholders, auditors and regulators.

What is Account Reconciliation?


Account reconciliation is the matching and validating of balances in the general ledger (GL) to external and internal sources or other independent calculations to ensure that month-ends and year-ends are closed accurately.

Data sources used to remediate and reconcile account balances include sub-ledgers for HR and fixed assets, bank statements and schedules of accounts receivable and payable. For both internal and external sources, every balance must match its corresponding account in the GL. Intercompany transactions, currency exchange rates and various non-cash activities only generate more complexities in an already complicated, time-consuming process..

A well-planned account reconciliation process includes an audit trail, workflow automation and supporting information to ensure not only that all accounts balance out, but that the process is transparent and clearly justified for everyone involved. In accomplishing these objectives, proper account reconciliation:

Internally, proper account reconciliation also provides process benefits, including reducing the time it takes to close, consolidate and prepare financial statements for every reporting period, while improving and automating internal control measures. What’s more, it’s a process that’s ripe for automation – but frequently done in a manual, time-intensive and error-prone manner.

Without a proper, automated account reconciliation process, organizations may encounter a range of problems arising from:

Account reconciliation is the bedrock of accurate, efficient, compliant and timely financial statement delivery. To provide a complete and accurate picture of a company’s financial performance, account reconciliation must be treated as a priority and critical path in the period-end close process.

Want to save money? Learn how a construction consulting firm saved over $55,000 a year by moving from a manual to automated month-end close process.

Recap: Accounting 101

The origins of account reconciliation and accounting itself date back to the 15th century. The basic premise is an accounting fundamental: that for every journal entry posted to the GL, debits and credits must be equal, matching up with any sub-ledgers or supporting transaction records.

A standard transaction entered into the general journal, by definition, balances out; it’s reconciling those against any number of sub-ledgers and external records that makes the process complicated.

Today’s modern accounting, enterprise resource planning (ERP) and GL systems have built-in controls to prevent unbalanced journal entries from being posted to the general ledger. The tricky part comes with exceptions—accounts that don’t match their corresponding sub-ledgers or other transaction systems.

Exceptions require adjusting entries to balance out, and this is where accounting teams can spend a huge amount of time—reviewing, investigating and finding the supporting explanations and calculations to make the appropriate adjusting entries for each exception to ensure an accurate, supported reconciliation.

Reconciliation Processes

The reconciliation process happens at the end of every reporting period—monthly, quarterly and annually—to ensure every GL account matches the balance of its corresponding sub-ledger or external transaction system. The process typically involves three distinct stages once the initial books are closed and trial balances are created for the period:

  1. Reconciling the trial balances for accounts in the general ledger with corresponding accounts in sub-ledgers or other secondary transaction systems, primarily including:
    • Sub-ledgers – two of the most common include payroll or human resources information systems (HRIS) and fixed asset tracking (FAST) systems.
    • Bank statements – for the cash or bank reconciliation process, it’s critical that the balance in the bank matches what the cash balance shows on a balance sheet.
    • Roll-forward schedules – the closing balance for every account (e.g. depreciation, prepaid assets, accounts payable and receivable) at the end of one period should equal the opening balance at the start of the next one.
  2. Making adjusting entries and ensuring they’re all reviewed, investigated and approved prior to posting to the GL. Reconciling and making adjusting entries are complicated processes, and where most bottlenecks in the close process take place. This is where accountants spend the bulk of the close cycle, acting as detectives and internal auditors to find the source of every exception and the supporting information to explain them.
  3. Providing supporting calculations and documentation where required (e.g., if an account doesn’t balance by a wide margin, explain why). External auditors, regulators and even senior management all need not just trusted numbers, but the transparency and documentation to quickly find the sources and explanation for every exception.
  4. Preparing financial statements, regulatory filings and other reports for the period. And with account rec done right, the results should be based on 100% reliable numbers. The more reliable your numbers are, the more confident your internal and external stakeholders will be.


Documentation of the entire reconciliation and financial close process is necessary not just for internal visibility, but for auditors and 21st-century reporting regulations to satisfy:

Learn how to streamline your account reconciliation process at a glance with this infographic, Removing The Bottleneck In Your Financial Close.

Why is Account Reconciliation So Important?

The month-end close, adjusting entries, posting to the GL and generating financial statements and reports are only part of the story in what’s referred to as the full-spectrum of FP&A activities. Gone are the days when finance and accounting functions existed in siloes; now, they feed each other to learn from past performance, optimize present performance and maximize performance in the future.


Still, it’s only after undergoing rigorous reconciliations and analysis that it’s possible to prepare reliable financial statements with confidence. Account reconciliation is a critical item in the financial close process because:

Account Reconciliation and Full-Spectrum FP&A

Every business needs to close its books. It’s not an option. But the larger the business, the more shareholders it has, the more complex its accounts and operations, the more complicated the process becomes. And the more important having a reliable, streamlined and automated account reconciliation process becomes, too.

Best practices dictate that companies close their books monthly to report on the previous month’s financial performance (or actuals), allowing management to stay on top of the company’s financial health and meet its reporting obligations. A critical part of the month-end close includes account reconciliation – ensuring the actuals are accurate, reliable and timely.

The modern, full-spectrum approach to FP&A depends on the delivery of these actuals so that the more forward-looking and planning-based phases of the FP&A cycle can take place. Actuals are needed for:

Full-spectrum FP&A builds trust in your numbers and shortens time to close. Got six minutes? See it for yourself.

Manual Reconciliation vs. Automation

Account reconciliation is often the bottleneck in closing the books on time. Numerous accounts have to be analyzed and reconciled each month. When performing these reconciliations manually, the sheer volume can make the task seem insurmountable.

Automation is the key here. In fact, with the right tools and technology, it’s not uncommon to reduce the time to complete the financial close by 50% or (far) more.

With the proliferation of financial process automation systems today, it’s now possible to automate unnecessarily manual and time-consuming tasks across functions and applications. This is particularly important in:


The following areas – each involving a high degree of manual effort to balance against the general ledger (GL) – make a compelling case for automating the account reconciliation process wherever possible:

Sub-Ledger Balances

Balancing the general ledger and sub-ledgers is a key control that, when automated, will take the manual effort out of identifying exceptions when accounts are unreconciled. Automated account reconciliation software will post matching entries without the need for manual review, freeing up hours or days of your accountants’ time that they would otherwise spend posting accounts that need no reconciliation, and searching for those that do.

Instead, automated account reconciliation allows your accounting teams focus where their expertise is most needed: investigating, remediating and reconciling only the GL accounts that are automatically flagged as exceptions for being out of balance with their corresponding sub-ledgers.

From a technology standpoint, this identification step requires account reconciliation software that integrates with disparate, companywide sub-ledger systems – the most common being payroll and human resources information systems (HRIS), and fixed asset tracking systems (FAST).

The value of automation is even more apparent if your organization has subsidiary companies or separate but related corporate entities. As the number of these entities grows, so too does the complexity of the account rec process and the overall volume of data, accounts and sub-ledger systems involved.

Bank Reconciliations

The bank reconciliation – or cash rec – is the similarly time-consuming process of reconciling transactions when they exist in your general ledger but not your bank(s)’ reporting systems  or vice versa – for example, if a check is cashed at the bank before the corresponding journal entry is made in your accounting software.

Automating the bank rec process delivers much the same value as with reconciling sub-ledger exceptions. Flagging just the transactions requiring investigation and reconciliation, automation frees up your accountants’ time from searching for those exceptions manually. When you have multiple banks, accounts in the thousands and transactions in the millions each month, automation addresses an even greater degree of complexity and magnitude of transactions to review – a process that would otherwise take up days or even weeks of your accountants’ time.

Roll-Forward Schedules

Roll-forward schedules are much the same as sub-ledgers when it comes to reconciliation, but instead of checking GL balances against data residing in other company systems, most schedules are kept in disparate, standalone spreadsheet files. Whether accounts receivable aging schedules or depreciation and amortization tables, roll-forward schedules can involve additional complications including:

Version control challenges when faced a single schedule exists in multiple spreadsheet files across your organization

As with sub-ledgers, each schedule typically includes pre-determined rules for what supporting commentary, documentation and calculations need to accompany certain adjusting entries (e.g. if balance differences exceed an acceptable threshold) before posting them to the GL

The basic check and balance of ensuring the closing balance of one period equals the opening balance of another

From maintaining version control and eliminating unnecessary manual review, to configuring rules and GL integrations, the value of automation to roll-forward reconciliation should be clear to anyone who’s performed the process before.

Workflow Automation

If manually reviewing accounts and tracking down supporting documentation for exceptions weren’t time-consuming enough, most companies have month-end close and reconciliation workflows they follow to close out each period. Depending on the number and complexity of accounts, entities and the overall business, simply carrying out this workflow – completing the review step before forwarding to another party for approval, for example – can be just as tedious as the reconciliation itself.

Workflow automation allows checklists, roles, rules and processes for review, reconciliation and approval (or rejection) to be defined once and repeated regularly. And once built, workflow automation takes virtually all the manual effort out of the process – automatically marking adjusting entries as complete and routing them to the appropriate colleague for approval before posting, for example.

Automatic notifications, real-time status reports, routing tasks to the right roles, and posting transactions to the GL when complete, all go even further to make the account reconciliation process more accurate, efficient and rewarding for those involved – and bolster the confidence of executives and external stakeholders in the numbers resulting from the process.

Ready to automate your reconciliation process? Check out this free on-demand webinar Automating and Accelerating Your Account Reconciliations to learn how!

Account Reconciliation Software Solutions

There are numerous software options available to finance and accounting teams, all designed to better manage and streamline the account reconciliation process. It’s not uncommon for smaller companies to use a combination of their accounting/GL software and a library of Excel spreadsheets. More sophisticated options for larger companies include:

Even if you have a modern ERP system in place that offers account reconciliation functionality, questions you should ask yourself include:

The Excel Problem

Aside from ERP systems, standalone Excel spreadsheets have played a dominant role with accounting and FP&A professionals for more than three decades. Based on survey data, about two thirds of finance professionals still rely heavily on standalone spreadsheets for accounting processes. Even financial close management and FP&A software with “Excel-like” interfaces have been unable to dethrone these standalone spreadsheets.

Today, companies need to respond quickly to any situation with accurate, real-time information that Excel, on its own, cannot deliver. The main problems with Excel on its own include:

The Solution

Whether choosing a point solution or full-spectrum FP&A platform for account reconciliation, there are three essential ingredients of a software solution – and they’re all related to automation:

  1. Connecting directly to source systems—from your GL, ERP systems or HRIS—so GL and sub-ledger accounts that match can be posted automatically. This also allows FP&A teams to pull live actuals into reports, forecasts and more.
  2. Automatically identifying accounts that don’t match, freeing up time by enabling teams to focus on the issues that require investigation and review.
  3. Facilitating automated workflows to eliminate manual work through all stages of the process, from review, remediation and reconciliation, to the creation and distribution of financial statements, management reports and self-serve analysis tools.

For numerous reasons, the ideal solution is to pick a full-spectrum FP&A software solution that spans the FP&A cycle—from closing the books and regular reforecasting to variance and scenario analyses and internal/external reporting. Today’s leading FP&A or corporate performance management (CPM) systems all include workflow automation, version control, audit trails and other measures required for transparency and control.


Last but not least, and not common enough among FP&A software, it’s vital to pick a solution that integrates directly with—and doesn’t try to replace—Excel and all its powerful  functionality, even extending to add-ons like Power Pivot and Power BI. The familiarity finance and business users have with Excel goes a long way to speed up adoption, and ultimately contribute to better business-wide decision making and planning.

Combined, these features provide companies and their account reconciliation teams benefits including:

The net result: more productive teams, more accurate numbers and, ultimately, a better bottom line—all from picking the right account rec software. Full-spectrum FP&A options streamline account reconciliation, empower finance teams and give leadership the tools and confidence to make the right decisions—not just in finance, but across the organization.

Ready to see for yourself why a full-spectrum FP&A Cloud is the ideal account reconciliation solution? See Vena in action with a personalized demo.

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